Stargazing: My first telescope

Stargazing: My first telescope

A couple of months ago I was in the Eifel area in Germany. Surrounded by forests and hills, completely dark, I looked up to the sky and the view was amazing. The milky way was stunning, and there were so incredibly many stars…

That is when I decided: I want a telescope!

Sky-Watcher Heritage 130p

After a lot of searching/reading I decided to go with an entry level Dobsonian telescope design. This type of telescope is usually cheaper to make, and easier to scale up; so for not a lot of money you get the most light-gathering which is very important in telescopes. It doesn’t have the convenience of a GOTO mount, which automatically points your telescope to interesting stars and star clusters, so I’ll have to learn to navigate on my own.

What I bought was the Sky-Watcher Heritage P130, a telescope which has a truss-tube design so it is easier to carry around and take with me to Germany.

After waiting for three weeks for clear skies (..sigh..) I had already hacked together a webcam so I could take pictures. This is how I created the following image of the moon:

The moon

(Sky-Watcher Heritage 130P, modified Microsoft Lifecam HD-3000, stacked using RegiStax 6)

After playing around with this setup I decided I want to have 2x Barlow (which increases magnification 2 times again). I settled on an Ostara 1.25” achromatic 2x Barlow lens, which also has an T-adapter with EOS T-ring for my DSLR camera. Basically this turns my telescope into the lens of the camera. I’m very pleased with the results, the Barlow itself is great, but I’ve ditched the webcam completely and now only use my DSLR for astrophotographing.

Initially my results weren’t very good using the Barlow, the increased magnification pointed out another problem with my telescope: It needed collimation. Every once in a while the mirrors of a telescope need to be realigned. There are a lot of ways to do this, but the easiest and cheapest (free) method is using a DIY collimation cap. It is a cap with small hole in the middle, which I made from the Barlow dust cap. Now you can point the telescope to a bright wall and align the mirrors. This made another huge improvement to the image quality.

Initially when looking at Jupiter I could only see a disk with 4 planets in a row. But after collimation I can clearly see the bands on Jupiters surface. And after attaching the DSLR and filming a bit on magnified 640x480 (which results in a better picture after stacking then using 1080p for example), I stacked everything using RegiStax, this is the result:

jupiter

(Sky-Watcher Heritage 130P, 2x Barlow, Canon 550D 640x480 cropped, stacked using RegiStax 6)


6 common traits of good programmers

6 common traits of good programmers

I’ve had a lot of colleagues in my career, some good, some bad, some absolutely fantastic. In this post I’ll go into some of the common traits that make them fantastic:

  1. Be inquisitive
  2. Share answers
  3. Community awareness
  4. Programmers pride
  5. Embrace laziness
  6. Spatial visualization

1: Be inquisitive

Always be inquisitive, if you encounter a problem the first thing all the great programmers do:

Google is your friend

This will bring you to StackOverflow questions, news groups, mailing lists, online documentation and more. This sounds very obvious but I’ve had a lot of colleagues that first asked a colleague instead of Googling. This is a bad habit in my opinion. Google has a lot more information than all your co-workers combined, there is no need to force a costly context switch upon your colleagues if you’ve got access to do greatest collective knowledge base.

Most of the time the first hit on Google doesn’t provide you with an answer, don’t give up…! Keep on looking, try different search queries, dive into the source code. If non of the resources listed above yield an answer, ask the community, post a question on StackOverflow, ask on the mailing list or newsgroup.

2: Share answers

Once you’ve found the answer you’ve been looking for, done! Right?

WRONG! This is where you can distinguish yourself from the average programmer. You’ve got something important left to do.

share

The longer it took you to find the answer, it’ll also take other people the same time to find the answer. Backtrack how you came to the solution, write it down if necessary. Have you encountered your problem/question on StackOverflow? Forum posts? Newsgroups? If so, go back there and tell them about your answer. If there wasn’t any question but you just used the wrong search queries to find something, write a blog post about your solution in your own words. Other people might find it easier thanks to you.

I’ve even had cases where I asked a StackOverflow question, found the answer myself, and answered the question myself. This sound silly, but helps other programmers! [example]

3: Community awareness

It turns out there is a bug in Open Source framework N… what does a good programmer do?

Two possible answers:

  1. Complain, find another alternative framework
  2. Download the source, patch it

It turns out both are wrong. Open Source is only possible because there is a community willing to fix problems. So answer number one is an obvious mistake. You picked the framework with care (presumably), encountering a bug is rare and a great possibility to help the community.

So what is wrong with the second answer? Instead of directly downloading the source and creating a path, first get in contact with the people behind the framework. One famous story is that Linus Torvalds (from Linux) rejected a beautifully crafted piece of code (which would greatly improve the speed of the Linux kernel) just because the author worked on it all alone for 6 months. First discuss your possible fix with the community, work together!

needya

Also, an open source project isn’t dead because nobody has fixed your bug; it is dead because you didn’t fix the bug.
You are the community!

4: Programmer pride

Programmers should be proud. Once you’ve made something you can’t wait to show the result to the clients and test your take on their ideas. If there a possible bug in a piece of code you wrote, touched or reviewed? Jump in there and help your colleagues!

Remember: Lion pride is also a team

But beware, there is good pride and bad pride. Bad pride is when you think a code review isn’t needed because you‘ve made it. Bad pride is thinking you’ll solve it alone instead of pair programming. Good pride is being proud of what you’ve made and feeling the shared ownership and responsibility. Be proud of your team, your product. Be passionate, but don’t be proud of yourself. Embrace feedback, code reviews and pair programming!

5: Embrace laziness

In almost all professions the best employees are diligent and hard working. Except programmers, the best and most celebrated programmers are lazy. It is probably the only profession where it is considered a good trait (except maybe mattress and pillow testers).

Perhaps the best-known lazy contribution to computing was the invention of the compiler by Grace Hopper in 1952. She did this, she said, because she “was lazy” and hoped that “the programmer may return to being a mathematician”.

If a programmer is asked to do something on a regular basis he/she will instantly try to come up with a way to avoid it. Script once, run many times. This is also true for our clients, if a client is talking about repetitive work it starts to itch, we programmers instantly feel the urge to eliminate this and automate the tasks.

Bill Gates once said: “I choose a lazy person to do a hard job. Because a lazy person will find an easy way to do it.”

Embrace the laziness, automate repetitive work, don’t repeat yourself.

Also: Lazy people will quickly learn keyboard shortcuts, like every good programmer should (!!)

6: Spatial visualization

To navigate an entire code base you’ll need a mental model in your head. To do this you need spatial visualization ability. Mental models in programming are usually called ‘codespace’.

spatial-skills

Using spatial skill as a programmer works in two ways, first is knowing the entire code base. When you have to make a change or addition to some code you’ll need to know where to look. Where do things happen, how does the flow between objects/instances go through the application. Which parts interact with each other.

Second, you have to recognise the code you are working with (on source/text level). Most of the time you switch between multiple files and the best programmers I know are always aware of their location inside the file they are working on. Just by looking at the text outline/structure they can quickly navigate inside source files. This also requires great spatial visualization ability.

There is also research being done about the link between programming, spatial skill and sex differences. It’s been known that men and woman do have different spatial visualization in the brain. Maybe the current method of teaching programming or navigating in IDE’s is better suited for males than females?

More sources on spatial skills and programming:
- Spatial skills and navigation of source code
- Spatial ability and learning to program
- Using Sex Differences to Link Spatial Cognition and Program Comprehension (interesting but provocative idea)


Developers are (code) artists

Developers are (code) artists

Last week a manager went to an artist for a new painting in his living room:

M: “Hello Mr Artist. I’d like a painting from you”
A: “Hi Mr Manager, what kind of painting do you want?”
M: “It needs to be 100 cm by 50 cm, for in my living room”
A: “Yes, I see, what do you want on the painting? I do abstract art.”
M: “Something with a bit of green and blue”
… some more details …
M: “When are you done with the painting?”
A: “Probably in three weeks!”
M: “Probably? I want to know exactly when it is done!”
A: “Well, oke, for you I’ll have it done in three weeks”
M: “Why does it take you so long?”
A: “Huh? What kind of question is that?”
M: “Well, I can paint that canvas in under an hour! Why do you take three weeks?”
A: “Sure, I can fill the canvas with color in an hour as well, but that isn’t a painting is it?”
M: “Why not?”
A: “….?”
M: “Can you do it in two weeks?”
A: “You’re drunk, go home.”


Review: Devoxx 2013

Review: Devoxx 2013

As promised, here is my write-up for Devoxx 2013, the best Java conference in the world (maybe on par with JavaOne).

Day 0

Having work to do I arrived tuesday evening, day zero.

Devoxx wristband

For the second year in a row there was no line at all picking up the awesome wristband with NFC chip. This already is much better than most conferences which have lanyards with huge badges (yes, I’m looking at you JFall!). The Devoxx NFC chip is used by sponsors to get your email address and it is also used to check off lunch and the party to the Noxx. There is also a big sign in front of every conference room, there you can either give “Thumbs up” or “Thumbs down” after you’ve been to a session, with the NFC wristband. If there is no speaker presenting the huge movie theater screens show a tweet-stream, upcoming talks and the ‘best’ voted talks of the conference. A new feature this year was the middle ‘star’ in front of each conference room. If the queue of people gets too large you could ‘star’ a talk. When it becomes available online at Parleys it will automatically be suggested to you online!

Speakers dinner

The speakers dinner was, like every year, very well organized. And it gave me the opportunity to speak to the brightest minds in the Java community. It was really inspirational and eventually led to change my online identity.

Day 1

The first day of the conference. Up too early to film some stock footage before all the people arrive. One advantage was the empty tram from Antwerp city center to Kinopolis.

Keynote

The start of the opening keynote had two guys (calling themselfs Meta-eX) where making amazing live music… with code! They used live-emacs to program Clojure code, which in turn used Overtone to play music in SuperCollider. Using not one but two Monome sequencers they made sequencing visible, displaying Clojure code with a beamer in the background.

After that Stephan Janssen gave us the latest Devoxx statistics, again maxed out with 3500 attendees (Devoxxians). He also talked about Devoxx4Kids with Daniel De Luca and they got a little present from Aldebaran Robotics: a Nao robot! He also talked about a substantial donation from Oracle for future Devoxx4Kids events!

The final part of the keynote was a demonstration by Oracle, they made a cool chess playing robot using multiple Raspberry Pi’s. After talking about the upcoming internet of things they looked at the history of the Java language and some bold design decisions under the hood, comparing the language to a wolf in sheep’s clothing. When the language Java was created it was pretty standard, looked a lot like C, but for blue collar programmers. But the technology under the hood was state of the art, not yet proven concepts. Today we take garbage collection, virtual machines for granted. When Java was created it was new and didn’t perform yet. The gamble payed off though, garbage collectors, JIT compilers and smart virtual machines caught up and now often outperform static C++ programs.

The Habit of Highly Effective Technical Teams

The next talk I could attend (had to do some networking and filming) was by Martijn Verburg. Lately he hasn’t been able to do a lot of programming but he’s working hard on his lean startup company and focuses on teamwork. In this talk he compared great agile teams with the Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles and other fun stuff. While actually making great points, for example: Having a shared goal. Like the TMHT, whom all fight for justice, your team has to have a shared goal as well. His talks are always full of humor but also have obvious and not so obvious rules, you’ll learn and laugh! This is exactly the reason our company (JPoint) flew him over for a day of hacking and a free talk for JUG members.

Teaching computer science with music

After being amazed by the Meta-eX performance during the keynote I decided to attend this talk by the programming member of the two man collective, Sam Aaron. He talked about his project Sonic Pi, a simple way to teach kids how to program. The main advantage of using music is the instant feedback during live coding. It was a nice inspirational talk about teaching and live coding music, and Sam Aaron is a great public speaker with huge enthusiasm.

Is it a car? Is it a computer? No, It’s a Raspberry Pi JavaFX Informatics System

Simon Ritter talked about using embedded Java with a Raspberry Pi to communicate with his Audi S3 to create a in-car information system, complete with touchscreen and accelerometer. After accessing the car’s CAN system he repurposed the steering wheel buttons for hands free control! A tantalizing talk about some real hardware hacking.

Hacking your own band with Clojure and Overtone

The final talk of the day was again with Sam Aaron, this time with his other band member Jonathan Graham. This time they explained how they created Overtone and other tools needed for their live performance like emacs-live. During the talk they often played some music making it a fun interactive experience. People asked questions and it was the perfect end of day one. The only drawback was Sam’s endless enthusiasm, every time Jonathan started a sentence he was interrupted by Sam… poor Jonathan. :-)

Beer Central

For the second time our company sponsored free beer at the famous ‘Beer Central’. The whole evening everybody was free to order any of the 300+ beers on stock! It was great fun and I caught up with a lot of (ex-) colleagues. The only drawback was getting back in the hotel around 06:10 after a wild night.

Day 2

For no obvious reason I decided to skip the keynote this morning.

Programmers are way cooler than musicians

Another talk about music, this time it was Geert Bevin talking about and playing on his eigenharp. It was a fun talk but I didn’t like it as much as most other people, it turned out to be one of the highest voted talks of the conference. Maybe it was the sound (which sometimes reminded me of the theremin, which I hate), or the fact I’d already been to two talks about music.

Java EE 7’s Java API for Websocket

Ah, a serious talk about Java EE by Arun Gupta. This for me was a bit of a disappointment. The talk itself was good, gave a lot of insight into the new features that you get from Websockets. But I got soon distracted. It reminded me about the small fight I had in 2009 about the new Servlet specification. The new websocket API again uses a LOT of annotations and yes, I understand there are some advantages for using them, there are also disadvantages. All the examples Arun showed used the annotations (and not the interfaces which are also there, yay!). For example:

@ServerEndpoint("/location")  //This is a good annotation, with meta information
public class SomeEndpoint {

   @OnOpen //Awww no this is where is goes wrong... it already says onOpen below
   public void onOpen(Session session) {
      ...
   }

   @OnClose //No no no...
   public void onClose(Session session) {
      ...
   }

   @OnError //NO!
   public void error(Session session, Throwable t) {
      ...
   }

   @OnMessage //...
   public void textMessage(Session session, String msg) {
      System.out.println("Text message: " + msg);
   }
}

The reasons I don’t like those annotations, and rather was to see adapters:

  • Interfaces are easier for code completion, ctrl-space knows what can be done
  • Testing is easier with interfaces
  • Less error-prone for beginning programmers (what happens on two OnOpen’s? Which annotations can I use? What can the method fingerprints look like?)
  • Annotations are for meta-data (like mapping!), not for describing code flow

During the sessions I tweeted about this and at the end of the sessions Arun opened the twitterfeed to check for comments. The only thing he said about my comment was “Roy, there is an Oracle document which describes when to use and not to use annotations, it is very clear, I’ll send it!”.

And here are those rules:

  1. When defining an API that an application is going to implement and the container is going to call, use an interface, unless one of the following rules applies.
  2. If an application class is providing an API that’s exposed to other applications, and that class also needs to provide methods that the container will call for lifecycle functions (or other container support or management functions), use an annotation to mark those methods so that the application has flexibility in the choice of names for those methods.
  3. If an application is going to expose an interface that another application (or user) is going to use without Java, use annotations to mark the methods that correspond to this interface. This avoids the need to define a Java interface that’s never going to be used by anyone other than the one class implementing the interface.
  4. If there can be more than one occurrence of a method for a given purpose, use an annotation.
  5. If an interface is chosen and the interface has many methods, consider providing an “adapter” class that implements all the methods with nop implementations. Applications can then subclass this adapter class to avoid the need to implement all methods. It’s often better to decompose the interface into multiple smaller interfaces.

(source: Annotation Rules)

As far as I can judge the first rule applies and non of the following rules break that.

Architecting Android Applications with Dagger

This talk surprised me! To be honest, the only reason I went to this talk was to have the best seat in the house for the JavaPosse… But I learned about a great framework. There is a problem using dependency injection frameworks in Android. The introspection and reflection is very slow and often causes the startup time to be 30% higher than it should be. This is why some of the great minds behind Google Guice invented Dagger. It originates from DAG-er which stands for Directional Acyclic Graph. It uses a separate compiler to analyze your code and generate new optimized injection code. This has two main advantages, if there is a problem in the graph it’ll show during compile-time not runtime. And second the processing is done at compile-time, so the execution is as fast has handwritten code!

JavaPosse LIVE

Another year at Devoxx, another JavaPosse LIVE. This year only two of the new posse were at Devoxx: Dick Wall and Chet Haase. But they teamed up with Emmanuel Bernard and Guillaume Laforge from the french programming podcast ‘Les Cast Codeurs’. It was the very first sessions at a conference I’ve seen where I left a little dumber, but I had a great time doing it.

Devoxx4Kids: Best Practises

Absolutely the best talk of the conference! Nah, just saying that because I was in it :-). During this talk Daniel De Luca, together with other Devoxx4Kids organizer (myself included) showed tools and best practises everybody can apply to get children into programming (your own kids, or a Devoxx4Kids session).

It was great fun, and only if one person in the audience decides to organize a Devoxx4Kids session, it was an absolute success.

BOF: Lessons learned from Devoxx4Kids

Instead of answering questions after the session we all went into a BoF room for an informal meeting. We had a lot of people talking about there experiences with children, from Arun Gupta teaching programming Minecraft to 200 kids to parents talking about their own experiences. Inspiring!

Devoxx movie: The Counselor

It wasn’t the best movie I’ve seen, it wasn’t the worst. It had the most crazy sex scene I’ve ever seen in a movie (catfish?), but also absolutely no interesting story line. It was very ‘american’ pointing out the obvious things instead of leaving anything to the imagination, which I didn’t like at all. Also, be prepared to leave the theater with a depression, no happy end. With this depression I didn’t go to the Noxx afterparty (where Meta-eX did an amazing gig!) but me and some colleagues decided to walk 4 km to the hotel, to reflect on life.

Day 3

Sorry for the incredibly long blogpost, I’ll keep the end short! The final (half) day at the conference I spend talking to a lot of people instead of going to the talks. I wanted to go to ‘Taming Drones: How Java Controls the Uprising of the Drone Force’ but it was full…

Introduction to Google Glass

The only talk I did attend was by Alian Regnier, one of the few GlassExplorers in Europe, he gave us his insight and shared his experiences with Google Glass after owning it for 6 months. It will no doubtfully infect us in a couple of years. He skipped over most of the code and instead talked more about his experiences as a Google Glass wearer. It was interesting to hear, but not that informative.

Recap

This Devoxx for me had a lot of: Music, Embedded devices (Raspberry Pi) and some Java EE. The organization was perfect as always (although I’d rather see a sandwich instead of the horrible salad). I still love the rock-and-roll bracelet with NFC chip. There wasn’t any big news, which was a bit of a shame. After announcing Devoxx FR two years ago, and Devoxx UK and Devoxx4Kids last year… it felt like 2013 was lacking something… I just don’t know what.

Also check out this amazing analysis of the conference tweets: http://blog.florian-hopf.de/2013/11/devoxx-in-tweets.html


Devoxx and my online identity

Devoxx and my online identity

This week I was at Devoxx 2013 in Belgium. Like the previous years I helped film the event. Together with other a couple of Devoxx4Kids organizers we also did a session and an informal BoF talk. I might do some more posts on the actual conference sessions later, lot of cool things to talk about, from making live music with Clojure and OverTone to flying quadcopters with digital bracelets.

Digital me

For me the biggest eye opener was during the pre-conference speakers dinner. Three times during this dinner/reception I was talking to someone and only after 30 minutes they suddenly realized they already knew me… online, not in real life. Because I’ve always used a crazy blue avatar and the anonymous ‘redcode.nl’ URL, people can’t possibly connect the face to the online presence. That is when Tasha Carl suggested to me to use an actual picture instead. (just noticed she also doesn’t have a recognizable picture, the irony!)

When I got to the hotel that evening and fired up my laptop I decided to quickly bridge the gap between my digital appearance and real life. I’ve now changed my avatar at Twitter/Facebook/Vimeo/LinkedIn etc to the image above (the iconic blue creature is still there!). Also as you might have noticed I’ve decided to switch my complete website to my other domain: royvanrijn.com. All the links online that point to redcode.nl will still work, but all the links on that page point to the new domain.

Instant confirmation

The following day I was walking around on the conference floor when a woman approached me. She asked “Are you Roy?”. It turned out I replied to a tweet she wrote earlier that day and recognized my face from the image. Confirmation couldn’t be more instant!

The Devoxx theme this year was “Reborn at Devoxx”, at this is absolutely true for me, my digital identity is actually reborn!


RuntimeExceptions within @Asynchronous methods

RuntimeExceptions within @Asynchronous methods

Since the introduction of EJB 3.1 we can use the @Asynchronous annotation. It provides a simple way to create a new asynchronous process in your application.

If a method with the @Asynchronous is invoked it will spawn a new thread and return immediately. The invocation can return either a void or a [Future][Future_T]. When returning a **Future** it starts out completely empty, but the @Asynchronous can return something called **AsyncResult** to fill the **Future** with a value. The original method can, at a later moment in time, call .get() or .get(long timeout, TimeUnit unit) to see the result of the Future. If needed it will stop and wait for the result. But in the mean time it could have executed some other pieces of code in parallel.

To find out more about how to use @Asynchronous and Future, read this page from TomEE.

The problem I’ve found with this annotation is how it handles RuntimeException. If you have a void as return value, and inside the asynchronous method a RuntimeException occurs, it’ll be completely swallowed. Nothing will be send to your logs. This is something I couldn’t find in any documentation.

If you create a new Thread yourself (see example below) it will print the RuntimeException:

public static void main(final String[] args) {
    		final Runnable t = new Runnable() {
    			@Override
    			public void run() {
    				throw new RuntimeException("Log me!!");
    			}
    		};
    		new Thread(t).start();
    	}

When executed you’ll end up with the exception nicely printed in the console. But this isn’t the case for @Asynchronous. For example if you do:

@Asynchronous
public void test() {
    		throw new RuntimeException("Where am I?");
}

This exception is swallowed, never to be seen again. Because this wasn’t what I expected it took me much longer then needed to find the actual bug!

To fix this problem you can instead return a Future and call get(). When calling get() on a Future, and the asynchronous method ends with an exception, it’ll immediately throw an ExecutionException which wraps around the asynchronous exception (call getCause() to get it).

But calling get() basically makes the call synchronous again instead of the fire-and-forget I wanted to have. So instead I’ve now ended up with a big try/catch block around the entire @Asynchronous method. It feels a bit wrong… did I miss something? Is there a better method to log the RuntimeException from @Asynchronous methods?


Java 'default' methods, future problem?

Java 'default' methods, future problem?

In Java there is one golden rule, we don’t break backwards compatibility. Not in the JVM interpreter/compiler and not in the JDK classes.

Extending interfaces

With the introduction of Lambda’s in Java there was a suddenly a big need to extend some of the Collections interfaces. And this is something that breaks backwards compatibility. If Java wants to add List.forEach all custom implementations of the List interface won’t compile anymore. This breaks one of the most treasured rules in JDK development, the backwards compatibility.

default

To counter this the ‘default’ keyword is introduced. Just like an abstract method in an abstract class you can now add some default behaviour to interfaces. This means for example that the List interface can be extended with default logic which can be overwritten (but doesn’t have to be). For example, see the following new ‘default’ method from the Iterable interface:

default void forEach(Consumer<? super T> action) {
	Objects.requireNonNull(action);
	for (T t : this) {
    	action.accept(t);
	}
}

There are some important rules; the added code will operate on static data, it can’t and should never manipulate state!
Some more info, examples and other solutions can be found here.

Possible future problems…

There is a new problem that will become larger once there are more and more extentions as default methods. There is a possibility of colliding default methods. This will still break backwards compatibility. For example the List interface and the Set interface both have:

default Spliterator<E> spliterator()

Now (crazy example) I’ve made something called MyListSet which implements all methods from List and also all methods from Set. This compiles fine in every Java version but will suddenly fail against Java 1.8. Both List and Set have the same spilerator() on the same level and will thus collide with the following exception:

class MyListSet<T> inherits unrelated defaults for spliterator() from types Set and List
  where T is a type-variable:
    T extends Object declared in class MyListSet

The more these ‘default’ methods are going to be used the higher the chance collisions like this will break backwards compatibility in the future. Personally I’m not yet convinced about the default methods.


OpenJDK and XKCD: Random number

OpenJDK and XKCD: Random number

A couple of days ago a our JPoint hackathon we discussed building (Adopt) OpenJDK. After finding out a better way to build OpenJDK on Windows (read it here), I’ve made my first improvement to OpenJDK.

This is a famous XKCD cartoon I wanted to implement:
getRandomNumber() { return 4; } // chosen by fair dice roll, guaranteed to be random

Where do we get started? Actually it turned out it is fairly easy to make this ‘improvement’. We just need to find the correct source file and do a build as described here.

Instead of the HotSpot core (which is all written in C) the JDK libraries are just classes/Java files. If you want to look at these Java files you’ll need to browse to [openjdk]/jdk/src/share/classes. There you’ll find familiar directories/packages like “java.*”, “javax.*” and even “sun.*”.

The file we need to change to improve Random is of course: [openjdk]/jdk/src/share/classes/java/util/Random.java

Now we browse until we find:

/**
 * Returns the next pseudorandom, uniformly distributed {@code int}
 * value from this random number generator's sequence. The general
 * contract of {@code nextInt} is that one {@code int} value is
 * pseudorandomly generated and returned. All 2<sup>32</sup> possible
 * {@code int} values are produced with (approximately) equal probability.
 *
 * <p>The method {@code nextInt} is implemented by class {@code Random}
 * as if by:
 *  <pre> {@code
 * public int nextInt() {
 *   return next(32);
 * }}</pre>
 *
 * @return the next pseudorandom, uniformly distributed {@code int}
 *         value from this random number generator's sequence
 */
public int nextInt() {
    return next(32);
}

Now we need fix the obvious error and turn it into:

/**
 * Returns guaranteed random number, rolled by nerdy DnD d20 dice.
 *
 * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D20_System
 *
 * @return guaranteed random number
 */
public int nextInt() {
    return 14;
}

And after the build I pointed Eclipse to my newly generated JDK: [openjdk]/build/windows-x86_64-normal-server-release/images/j2sdk-image.
Next I run the following code:

import java.util.Random;

public class Test {

	public static void main(final String[] args) {
		final Random rnd = new Random();
		for(int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
			System.out.println(rnd.nextInt());
		}
	}
}

Result:

14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14

Serious note:
This is absolutely not a valid patch but it really shows how easy it is to modify the JDK itself! There is a lot of low hanging fruit in the JDK, from missing unit tests, to unused imports to classes that don’t use generics yet. For more things to hack on, please read: https://java.net/projects/adoptopenjdk/pages/WhatToWorkOnForOpenJDK!


Building OpenJDK on Windows

Building OpenJDK on Windows

Tomorrow I’ll be enjoying an OpenJDK hack session with Martijn Verburg (aka The Diabolical Developer). To prepare for this session he told us to follow the AdoptOpenJDK build instructions.

Most cool developers today seem to be using OS/X, but some of us are stuck on Windows laptops. I actually choose to stick with Windows 7 because every single client I’ve worked for has Windows workstations and only require the application to run on Windows. But anyway Martijn said: “Getting OpenJDK to build on Linux/Mac would be easy, Windows can be dicey”

With a bit of Googling and some small problems I’ve got it working just fine on my Windows 7 (64 bit). Most information I got was from this write-up, but I encountered some problems and could skip some steps I didn’t need.

All the tools mentioned are free, but you will have to install some Microsoft Visual C++ packages to compile (which most Java programmers try to avoid).

Windows SDK for Windows 7.1

Instead of the blogpost above mentioning this step second, I recommend doing it first. If you install VisualC++ 2010 Express first this step might fail with some weird error. The solution? Uninstall VisualC++ 2010 Express and first install Windows SDK for Windows 7.1.

So go here and install: http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?id=8279

Microsoft VisualC++ 2010 Express

Next install VisualC++ 2010 Express (beware, Microsoft tries to install another version, pick 2010 Express):
http://www.microsoft.com/visualstudio/en-us/products/2010-editions/visual-cpp-express
And next Windows Imaging Component (64-bit):
http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?displaylang=en&id=1385

Cygwin (64 bit)

For some reason I ran into problems early on using the 64 bit Cygwin, so I decided to install the 64 bit version as well. This worked, so I recommend doing this.
During the installation you’ll need to add some development packages:

  • binutils
  • cpio
  • diffutils
  • file
  • gawk
  • gcc-core
  • m4
  • unzip
  • zip

I might have forgotten one or two, this will probably popup during the ‘configure’ step below. If you find a missing package, please tell me and I’ll update the post.

make

The version of ‘make’ that is packaged with Cygwin doesn’t work with OpenJDK. Instead we need to download the source from http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/make/. I picked version 3.82 (this one is mentioned on the OpenJDK page). I downloaded and unzipped the source code here: C:\Projects\OpenJDK\make-3-82

To compile, fire up Cygwin and type:

$ cd /cygdrive/c/Projects/OpenJDK/make-3.82
$ ./configure
$ make

Now you could take the generated ‘make.exe’ and place it into the Cygwin bin directory, but this isn’t needed.

freetype

Next we need to have Freetype, this step is done exacly like descriped here. Only do the ‘Freetype’ chapter generating the lib and dll.

Once you’ve generated the lib+dll, make a new directory (I used C:\Projects\OpenJDK\freetype). Add the ‘include’ directory from the freetype source code used in the step before. Also create a ‘lib’ directory and place the generated lib and dll in it.

Hg/Ant/JDK7

The other article mentions you’ll need to install TortoiseHg, Apache Ant and a current JDK 7 (as bootstrap). I didn’t have to do this because I already had all three installed. But please go ahead, they are probably needed:

Getting OpenJDK sources

The other article mentions a lot of PATH requirements that need to be set. I didn’t encounter this at all because I configured my build in another way. First we’ll need to get the OpenJDK source code.

$ cd /cygdrive/C/Projects/OpenJDK/
$ mkdir jdk8_tl
$ hg clone http://hg.openjdk.java.net/jdk8/tl jdk8_tl
$ cd jdk8_tl
$ ./get_source.sh

This will create a new directory: /cygdrive/C/Projects/OpenJDK/jdk8_tl with all the sources!

Configure

Now we need to configure a build for OpenJDK. Instead of just calling ‘./configure’ we’ll need to add a few extra options, we’ll need to point it to the correct MAKE directory and we need to include our custom build freetype.

./configure MAKE=/cygdrive/C/Projects/OpenJDK/make-3.82/make.exe with_freetype=/cygdrive/C/Projects/OpenJDK/freetype

This will throw a lot of warnings, but in the end it should print something like this:

* OpenJDK target: OS: windows, CPU architecture: x86, address length: 64

Tools summary:
* Environment:    cygwin version 1.7.25(0.270/5/3) (root at /cygdrive/c/Development/cygwin64)
* Boot JDK:       java version "1.7.0_40"  Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.7.0_40-b43)  Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 24.0-b56, mixed mode)  (at /cygdrive/c/progra~1/java/jdk17~1.0_4)
* C Compiler:     Microsoft CL.EXE version 16.00.30319.01 (at /cygdrive/c/progra~2/micros~1.0/vc/bin/amd64/cl)
* C++ Compiler:   Microsoft CL.EXE version 16.00.30319.01 (at /cygdrive/c/progra~2/micros~1.0/vc/bin/amd64/cl)

Build performance summary:
* Cores to use:   7
* Memory limit:   16373 MB
* ccache status:  not available for your system

After the configure step you should have a new build directory added.
Mine was located at: /cygdrive/C/Projects/OpenJDK/jdk8_tl/build/windows-x86_64-normal-server-release

Build it

The next thing I did was to build everything, this can take anywhere from 10 to 40 minutes, my build took 20 minutes.

$ cd /cygdrive/C/Projects/OpenJDK/jdk8_tl
$ /cygdrive/C/Projects/OpenJDK/make-3.82/make.exe clean images

After a long wait and a lot of warnings and messages it says it created your very own JDK 8 build. Time to give it a try:

$ cd /cygdrive/C/Projects/OpenJDK/jdk8_tl
$ cd build/windows-x86_64-normal-server-release/images/j2sdk-image
$ bin/java -version

OpenJDK build completed

It worked!

Like I said before, I encountered some problems and errors along the way. Most involved the wrong Cygwin (32 bit), this caused bash to crash (STATUS_ACCESS_VIOLATION) during the configure phase. Also I ran into a problem installing ‘Microsoft SDK for Windows 7.1’ which required me to first uninstall Microsoft VisualC++ 2010. Another problem was not installing ‘diff’ in Cygwin (diffutils) so the build found some other diff.exe (from Git?) which gave differences during the actual build causing it to stop.

I might have forgotten to write down some step, if you encounter any problem (and solve them) please tell me so I can update this post!

Todo

One thing I should add is ‘ccache’. This tool greatly improves the build speed because it caches all unchanged classes/files. It was in Cygwin (32 bit) but it is missing in Cygwin (64 bit)… I’ll have to compile and install it myself. This is one thing I haven’t tried yet, but I probably should do!

Update: I’ve tried compiling and using ccache-3.1.9, but this broke the build. I might try different versions but for now I’ll just skip ‘clean’-ing altogether :-)


To be or not to be... Agile!

To be or not to be... Agile!

In my career I’ve seen a lot of misconceptions about Agile. And I’d like to do a step back and explain what being Agile means to me.

We ‘do’ Agile

This is the biggest misconception of all, and the main reason for my blogpost. Again and again I’m hearing people/companies say: “We do agile”. And this is just wrong… Agile isn’t some system you ‘do’. It isn’t a selection of things you can learn from a book. It is just a mindset and all the other stuff are consequences, let me explain that!

The meaning of ‘Agile’

If you look up the word Agile in the dictionary this is what it comes up with:

ag·ile adjective \ˈa-jəl, -ˌjī(-ə)l\
able to move quickly and easily
quick, smart, and clever

Source: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/agile

Agile means you’ll move quickly and easily. That is it basically, everything you do when you are agile boils down to:
Start quickly, get something done quickly, expect changes in movement and go with it easily.

For example, in software, expect every bit of code to change (more than once). This will automatically make your code easy to read, extend and refactor. Not only code will change, the requirements will change. Nobody knows what a system will look like in two/three years (those who say they do are wrong), we might have a good idea what to make at this movement, but once you get started people will want other things… this always happens. Stay open to these changes in your movement, be agile!

Agile, Scrum, we need to do stand ups!

Ah, the stand ups, you’ve been reading a book and it told you that you need stand ups? This is a requirement to be ‘agile’? WRONG. Like I said before, it is all just a consequence. Why do we do these stand ups? Because you need to know what everybody around you is doing at this moment. In waterfall projects you already know what people would be doing weeks (even months) in advance. But if you embrace the agile mindset and accept all these changes you might not even know what you’re doing tomorrow. The more you are open to changes and quickly move between tasks, the more often you’ll need to update your colleagues. That is why some projects do stand ups, a consequence of being open for changes.

We use whiteboards and post-its, we do agile!

If your design and the requirements don’t change, write everything down with a pen, or maybe put it in some Software Architect solution (Rational anybody?) or just inscribe it in a stone tablet. Instead, if you are agile and move quickly, designs and requirements change. You don’t want to go into a meeting with a printed piece of paper which has tasks or designs etc, you’d rather want to have the design on a whiteboard. This will allow you to change it during the meeting instead of re-printing. Whiteboards are perfect to erase and redraw shapes and lines! It is just the best tool for somebody who is agile. Except for one problem, if you write down text and you have to move it… rewriting takes a long time. To counter this we use post-its: write once, stick everywhere! It complements the whiteboard very well.

So do we need to use a whiteboard and post-its to ‘be agile’? NO… Whiteboard and post-its are a consequence of being agile, it is the best tool for the job as far as I know.

Retrospective!

If you don’t try new things and you don’t want to change the way you are working (being not agile) you don’t need to evaluate and come up with changes, obviously. But if you are agile, open for change, you need to have meetings on how you can change. As a consequence the retrospective arrives. This meeting is one of the most important meetings if you are agile; you talk about what can be improved in your process: What can make us more agile? What is holding us back?

No agile rules…

I don’t think agile needs a set of rules, you just need people to explain the basic concept of the mindset. The other things most organizations treat as ‘agile rules’ can be considered best practices because they make sense if you are agile; but please don’t just follow these rules.

Learn from others, embrace the agile mindset and come up with your own system… that works for you!


Congratulations to Devoxx4Kids!

Congratulations to Devoxx4Kids!

If you haven’t heard about Devoxx4Kids, first read the following post and watch the video: here!

The people behind Java (Oracle) have recognized the great potential behind Devoxx4Kids and decided to award the ‘concept’ with a Duke’s Choice award!
This was presented to Stephan Janssen (the original mastermind behind the concept) at JavaOne this year. Because I filmed the original event and also our Dutch event in Amsterdam I was asked to make a very short impression video which was shown at the JavaOne Community Keynote.

You can see it here (including a great shout-out to me and my daughter, the ‘mascotte’) here:
(from 10:17 up to 14:55)


Episode #1

Episode #1

Lately I’ve been having a lot of blog ideas, but I never take the time to write it all down in a blogpost.
That’s why I’m now going to try to combine thing I love:

  • Programming
  • Technology
  • Filming/video editing

Here is the first episode of Roy on programming:

Item 1: Oculus Rift
- http://www.oculusvr.com/
- http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/

Item 2: Rich Hickey
- http://www.infoq.com/presentations/Simple-Made-Easy
- http://www.infoq.com/presentations/Design-Composition-Performance

Item 3: Separation of Concerns
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_concerns

Music by:
- Nasty Goreng: https://soundcloud.com/nastygoreng

Please let me know what you think about it.


No more DSL for acceptance/integration testing

No more DSL for acceptance/integration testing

Everybody seems to be using Fitnesse or Cucumber for integration testing these days. The main idea is that users (testers/business analists and programmers) can write what your program should do in plain text. The programmer then creates a small layer of code which gets interpreted and executes your actual program to see if the specified requirements are met.

Fitnesse example

For example a (hypothetical) piece of code in Fitnesse as it could have been used in the Port of Rotterdam:

!3 Anchorage tests

!|given a ship                                |
|Id  |Name       |Category|CallSign|Shipnumber|
|1001|Maersk Bali|TANKER  |D6DZ8   |7420211   |

|script                                                              |
|When a ship called|MAERSK BALI|reaches the port                     |
|And it reports anchor down                                          |
|ensure            |the ship is shown in the list of anchored vessels|
|check             |the list of anchored vessels now has size|1      |

This is something the testers and product owners can read and understand. Behind this layer of text Fitnesse will try to execute pieces of code. This is left as an exercise for the programmers to complete. They’ll need to write something like:

GivenAShip:
void setId(String id);
void setName(String name);
void setCategory(String category);
void setCallSign(String callSign);
void setShipnumber(String shipnumber);
void execute(); //Stores the ship in the database


AnchorageScenarios:
void whenAShipCalledReachedThePort(String shipName);
void andItReportsAnchorDown();
boolean theShipIsShownInTheListOfAnchoredVessels();
int theListOfAnchoredVesselsNowHasSize();

This is where the problems start, there is a lot of room for typos. Which will send you all over the codebase constantly translating Fitnesse text like “and it reports anchor down” to “andItReportsAnchorDown” during your searches.

Also people always say, because it is ‘plain text’ the testers, analists and product owners can instantly start writing tests. But this just isn’t true… It isn’t just writing down tests/requirements, it is programming with a DSL. Normal human text isn’t good enough, it still needs some DSL structure. They’ll have to learn to program in the Fitnesse DSL language. In almost all project I’ve worked on, it is the programmers writing and maintaining tests, people from the business stay far away from Fitnesse.

If you want to refactor the scenarios/fixtures in Fitnesse you’re in for a treat. Everything is bound by name only, and renaming code for example won’t rename the DSL! Using Fitnesse ‘sounds’ very agile, but it doesn’t really make the code agile at all. Most test code I’ve worked on is fragile, very ridged and not easy to refactor. Why not take advantage of that IDE and statically typed language if the programmers are writing and maintaining the tests?

Using code instead

Today we had a “ShipIt”-day (nautical-pun intended) at work, where we’re free to work on any project for 24 hours straight and we present our findings afterwards. This boosts the creative ideas and in the long run efficiency and innovation.

After using Fitnesse now for three years we’ve become used to it, and don’t ever question its usage. Although we feel the pain of the rigid/fragile test code on a daily basis. I decided to start rethinking the way we do acceptance tests.

My goals was to make our tests:

  • Simpler to write
  • Easier to refactor
  • Maintain the readability
  • Easier to reuse
  • Faster! (no DSL parsing)

This is what the initial design now looks like. The example used above would become the following:

@Jitness        // Annotation that indicates this is a test class

@SuiteSetUp({   // This is called once for all the methods in the class below

	@Execute(
			type = ShipExecutor.class,
			data = { "1001", "Maersk Bali", "TANKER", "D6DZ8", "7420211" })
	})
})
@SetUp({
	       // @Execute annotations here will be called before each of the methods below

	       // The @SetUp annotation can also be placed on a single method in the test class

})
public class AnchorageTests {

	public void givingCommandAnchorDownCausesShipToAppearInList() {

		final AnchorageScenarios scenarios = new AnchorageScenarios();

		scenarios.whenAShipReachedThePortCalled("Maersk Bali");
		scenarios.andItReportsAnchorDown();
		Assert.assertTrue(scenarios.theShipIsShownInTheListOfAnchoredVessels());
		Assert.assertEquals(1, scenarios.theListOfAnchoredVesselsNowHasSize());
	}

	public void anotherTestHere() {
		... etc ...
	}
}

Using Jitness (working title) the scenarios will be implemented in exactly the same way we’ve already been doing. This makes it easier to transition from Fitnesse to this code.
The only bit of ‘magic’ is the execute annotation. You can write executors like this:

public class ShipExecutor implements Executor {

	private ShipRepository repository = new ShipRepository();

	@Override
	public void before(final String[] args) throws Exception {
                repository.store(parse(args));
	}
	
	@Override
	public void after(final String[] args) throws Exception {
                repository.delete(parse(args));
	}

        private Ship parse(String[] args) {
		return new ShipBuilder()
                         .id(Long.parse(args[0])
                         .name(args[1])
                         .category(args[2])
                         .callSign(args[3])
                         .shipNumber(args[4])
                         .build();
        }
}

A (more elaborate) sample of the output it generates, with failure:

Results: 
OK	BunkeringTests.SuiteSetUp
OK	BunkeringTests.addTypeOfFuelToBunker
OK	BunkeringTests.changeTypeOfFuelToBunker
OK	BunkeringTests.removeTypeOfFuelToBunker
OK	BunkeringTests.bunkeringOnIncomingMovement
OK	BunkeringTests.bunkeringOnOutgoingMovement
OK	BunkeringTests.loadBunkeringForOpenVesselVisit
NOK	BunkeringTests.retrieveListOfBunkerBarges
expected:<1> but was:<2>
OK	BunkeringTests.SuiteTearDown
Took: 128 ms

The main advantages of using this are obviously leveraging the full potential of your IDE, including renaming/refactoring. Changing methods and classes in your production code will automatically show up as changes in Jitness. And everything is easy to refactor because it is just code! This will eventually lead to much more agile code, simpler and easier to refactor. Obviously there is one main drawback, it is harder for testers to read and write. But if they pair up with a programmer this should be no problem I think. I’d rather have the testers learn a bit of coding than the programmers learn a text DSL which leads to fragile tests.

Another big advantage is execution time, using compiled code is always faster than parsing plain text or HTML at runtime. Also this code is compiled during the build, so there is no need for additional classpath (Maven) plugins. I’m really fond of the idea to use code to describe the tests, and I’m very curious how my colleagues are going to rate this tomorrow when we demo the “ShipIt” ideas. With a couple of more days work this can be fully tested and made robust enough to start using it and maybe even open source it.

What are your thoughts? Any ideas about improving the API? Should we just keep using Fitnesse/Cucumber or any other alternative DSL instead?


Ethics for programmers

Ethics for programmers

Programmers need more ethics.
And I’m not talking about ‘craftsmanship’ ethics such as “always make clean code”, “be agile” or “coffee should be consumed pure and black”.

No, I’m talking about real ethics:

Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethics

PRISM

Almost all the programmers I know are very active online, and all of them are condemning the US government project called PRISM. It is a huge electronic surveillance program, recently revealed by Edward Snowden. This program collects (all) data from a huge list of international websites such as Google, Facebook, AOL, Apple, Yahoo, Microsoft, and more.

One can only imagine the magnitude of this project, it handles a humongous amount of data and it would have to filter and match the data. It will have a lot of (secret) API’s and other methods of collecting the data. And this is all created by…. us programmers!

Just say no…

Why would somebody help the government in making these applications? I ethically wouldn’t think about programming this. And I’m serious about it, I’ve already turned down two projects in my young career because of an ethical standpoint:

  1. Helping to tweak an algorithm for the Dutch government for missile guidance (it would have been a cool project!)
  2. A project for a telecom company doing deep packet inspection, enabling them to ask subscription costs for (free) mobile apps
    (such as WhatsApp)

Both these projects might influence my own, or other people’s life in a negative way, and I refuse to help people do that. It’s like being an arms dealer or gun manufacturer condemning the use of weapons. It would feel like selling a crowbar to a thief, making a bit of money, while actually enabling them to break in.

Ethics!

Maybe programmers should have an oath, something like the Hippocratic Oath or the Physician’s Oath. Here are some of the rules I follow:

  • I won’t write code which helps/enables people to harm others
  • I won’t write code which will limit other people’s freedom
  • I won’t work for companies using software patents to bully/attack other people and companies

If you have any good additions to the list, please drop a comment!


Why are you not organizing a Devoxx4Kids?

Why are you not organizing a Devoxx4Kids?

Last year I attended the first Devoxx4Kids in Gent (Belgium). It is a day where programmers introduce children aged 10 to 14 to programming. That day we used Scratch (a fun online programming framework), Lego Mindstorms and a Mars rover (with emulation). And it was a blast!

Once I returned and edited this video and showed it to my colleagues we quickly came to the conclusion: We need to organize a Dutch version!

Organizing

Edwin (a JPoint colleague) and I tried a couple of contacts and found a willing foe in the form of the University of Amsterdam. They saw the potential and were kind enough to offer us rooms, laptops, Lego Mindstorms and a completely organized lunch! We in turn hired two students to assist with the sessions and took care of subscription, marketing and the technical know-how. It doesn’t take a lot of organizational skills to organize a Devoxx4Kids session.

Devoxx4Kids NL

Last saturday was the moment of truth, in the morning kids and parents started to arrive at the university. We did a quick introduction, flew around with (off the shelf) quadcopter to start off with the wow-factor and then we went into the sessions. In Belgium all the parents left the kids, but this time most parents accompanied the children into the session rooms. In retrospect this wasn’t very good and next time we should banish parents from the sessions. The sessions we organized:

The kids were split up into three groups and rotated over all the sessions. Every session was 90 minutes, in retrospect this is a bit long. Most kids got tired and a bit bored after about 45 to 60 minutes. The last track of the day the kids were a lot more distracted. For future Devoxx4Kids events I’d rather do short fun 45 minute sessions instead of complete in depth 90 minute sessions.

Kids learn quickly… even faster than adults! I tried my Arduino session on a couple of adults and they took about 75 minutes to complete all the tasks. The kids did it in record time, we had to improvise and set them a new challenge on the fly. They first made a blinking LED, then hooked up a piezo buzzer to play some music, then they created a ‘musical instrument’ with a photoresistor and the piezo buzzer. Finally (improvised on-the-fly) we made them create a traffic light with three colored LEDs! The quick learning was also noticed in the other sessions.

Our Devoxx4Kids was completely sold out in just 2 hours, so there is a lot of demand for events involving kids and programming. We are going to brainstorm this Wednesday on how we can do more on this front. Keep organizing Devoxx4Kids for 40 kids at the time? Or are there other options? How can we make it pay for itself instead of being fully voluntary…? All ideas are welcome, leave a comment/tweet/email!

Video impression

Are you not yet convinced you should organize a Devoxx4Kids in your neighbourhood/country? Just watch the video I made during our event:

p.s. Having pictures and video help to tell the story. This video from Devoxx4Kids 2012 in Belgium helped us to get the University of Amsterdam involved!